A Parking Man Language Towards Scollon and Scollon’s Theory

  • Emma Bazergan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Muslim Indonesia
Keywords: Parking Man, Pragmatics concept


The research objectives are to know the grammaticality English expressions on the T-shirt.  To get the information effects of good message contents of slogan are discovered in young generations’ T-shirt. To get the information effects of bad message contents of slogan are discovered in young generations’ T-shirt In this thesis, the writer used descriptive method to take the sample. Then, the writer observed the expression in the several access areas and explained the opinions by young generations, till it can take some causes of the effect. Hereafter, the research processed the data by analyzing carefully. The finding of this research, it has result the statements of the grammaticality are rarely to use it. It usually written is non-standard in English such as: deliberate misspelling, slang. Then, good and bad effect can be covered into our feeling like: being proud, confidence, motivated, etc. so, it can arrangement our mindset even our act.



Bamgbose, Ayo. ‘Politeness across cultures: Implications for second language teaching’ in J.E. Alatis (ed.) 1994.Educational linguistics, crosscultural communication, and global interdependence.Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Basang, Djirong.1981. Riwayat Syekh Yusuf dan Kisah I Makkutahrang Daeng Mannuntungi. Jakarta: Proyek Penerbitan Buku Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah.

Berstein, B. 1970. ‘Social class, language and socialisation’.In P.P. Giglioli (ed.) 1972.Language and social context.London: Penguin Education.

Blum-Kulka, S. 1982.‘Learning how to say what you mean in second language: A study of speech act performance of learners of Hebrew as a second language’. Applied linguistics, 3, 29-59.

Brown, R. and A. Oilman , 1960 ‘The pronoun of power and solidarity’. In P.P.Gigliogi (ed.) 1972. Language and social context. London: Penguin Education.

Brown, P. and S.C. Levinson. 1978. ‘Universals in language use: Politeness phenomena.’ In E. Goody, (ed.). Questions and politeness: Strategies in social interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P. and S.C. Levinson. 1987. Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Christian, J. and P.M. Gardner. 1977. The individual in northern Dene thought and communication: A study in sharing and diversity. Mercury series Canadian ethnology service papers no.35. Ottawa: National museum of


Eraser, Bruce. 1990. ‘Perspectives on politeness’. Journal of pragmatics.NorthHolland Publishing Company. 14:219-236. Gu, Yueguo. 1990. ‘Politeness phenomena in modern Chinese’. Journal of pragmatics.North-Holland Publishing Company 14: 237-257.

Goffman, Ervin. 1967. Interactional rituals: Essays on face-to-face behaviour. New York: Achor Books.

Hill, B. et al. ‘Universal of linguistic politeness’. Journal of pragmatics.NorthHolland Publishing Company. 10:347-

House, J. and G. Kasper. 1981. ‘Politeness markers in English and German’ in F. Coulmas (ed.). Conversational Routine. (157-186). The Hague: Moutun.

Ide, Sachiko. 1989. ‘Formal forms and discernment: Two neglected aspects of linguistic politeness. Mullilingua.8:


Kasper, Gabrielle. 1990. ‘Linguistic politeness: Current research issues. Journal of pragmatics. North-Holland Publishing Company. 14: 193-218.

Kitagawa, Chisako. 1980. ‘Saying yes in Japanese’. Journal of pragmatics. NorthHolland Publishing Company. 4: 105-120.

Koike, D. April. 1994. ‘Negation in Spanish and English suggestions and requests: Mitigating effect?’ Journal of pragmatics. North-Holland Publishing Company. 21: 513-526.

Lakoff, Robin. 1973. The logic of politeness, or minding your p’s and q’s. Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistics Society, 292-305. Chicago, 1L: CLS.

Lane,Chris. 1993. ‘Yes, I don’t understand: Yes, no, and European-Polynesian miscommunication in New Zealand’. Journal of pragmatics. North-Holland Publishing Company. 20: 163-188

Leech, Geoffrey N. 1983. Principles of pragmatics. London: Longman.

Matsumoto, Yoshiko. 1988. ‘Reexarnination of the universality of face: Politeness phenomena in Japanese’. Journal of pragmatics. NorthHolland Publishing Company. 12: 403-426.

Nwoye, O. G. 1992. ‘Linguistic politeness and socio-cultural variations on the notion of face’. Journal of pragmatics. North-Holland Publishing Company. 18: 309-328.

Palenkahu, R.A. et al. 1971. DialekKonjo di Sulawesi Selatan.Ujung Pandang: Lembaga Bahasa Nasional Cabang 111.

Saville, M. -Troike. 1989. The ethnography of communication: An introduction. 2nd edition. New York: Basic Blackwell.

Scollon, R. and S.B.K. Scollon. 1995. Intercultural communication: A discourse approach. Oxford, Cambridge: Blackwell.

Tannen, Deborah. 1984. ‘The pragmatics of cross-cultural communication. Applied linguistics.5, 3.

Thomas, Jenny. 1983. ‘Cross-cultural pragmatic failure’. Applied Linguistics 4 (2), 91-112.

Watts, Richards. 1992. Linguistic politeness and politic verbal behaviour: Reconsidering claims for universality. In:

Richards J. Watts, K. Ehlich and S. Ide. Eds., Politeness in language: Studies in its history, theory and practice. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Yadugiri, M. A. 1986. ‘Some pragmatic implication of the use of ’yes’ and ‘no’ in response to yes-no questions’. Journal of pragmatics. North Holland Publishing Company. 10.

Yu, Hwei. E. and Lii-Shih.‘What do ‘yes’ and ‘no’ really mean in Chinese?' in J.E. Alatis (ed.) 1994. Educational linguistics, cross-cultural communication, and global interdependence. Washington: Georgetown university press.